Thursday, 12 March 2015

Concession in unintentional Oaths

Lesson # 651 From Holy Qur’aan

Concession in unintentional Oaths

‘Al-Maaa-‘idah (the Table Spread) – Chapter – 5)–Stage - 2

Verses – 89 of 120, Section – 12 of 16 (Part - 7)

BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim

In the name of Allaah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Allaah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the oaths which ye swear in earnest. So the expiation thereof is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith ye feed your own folk, or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave. But for him who findeth not (the wherewithal to do so) then a three days’ fast. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye have sworn. And keep your oaths. Thus Allaah expoundeth unto you His Revelations in order that ye may give thanks.    
Laa  yu-‘aakhizu-kumUllaahu  bil-lagwi  fiii  ‘ay-maanikum  wa  laakiny-yu-‘aakhizukum-  bimaa  ‘aqqattu-mul-‘ay-maan.  Fa-kaffaara-tuhuuu  ‘it-‘aamu  ‘asharati  masaa-kiina  min  ‘aw-sati  maa  tut-‘imuuna  ‘ahliikum  ‘aw  kiswatuhum  ‘aw  tah-riiru  raqabah.  Famallam  yajid  fa-Siyaamu  salaasati  ‘ayyaam.  Zaalika  kaffaaratu  ‘aymaanikum  ‘izaa  halaftum.  Wah-fazuuu  ‘ay-maanakum.  Kazaalika  yu-bayyi-nUllaahu  lakum  ‘Aayaa-tihii  la-‘allakum  tash-kuruun.                    
                                                                                                                           

Lesson

Laa  yu-‘aakhizu – {will not take (you) to task}, it has been derived from mu-‘aakhizah. ‘Akhaz means ‘to arrest, to support, seizure’. Mu-‘aakhizah means ‘to call to account, categorical answer, to punish’. Lagwun – (useless, absurd), the deed, done unintentionally). ‘Ay-maanu - (Oaths), it is plural of yamiin. As per Arabic language it means ‘oath’. ‘Aqqattum – (you swear in earnest), it is from ta’-qiid, which is made from ‘aqdah. ‘Aqdah is used for ‘a knot’. Ta’-qiid means to tie a knot, to strengthen. So it aims ‘to swear intentionally’. Kaffaaratun – the deeds, which has to be done as a punishment against any evil, so that the evil may be removed. It should also be kept in mind that it is a method of getting liberation from any restriction, which has been prescribed by Allaah Almighty. Halaftum – (you have sworn), it is from halaf, which means ‘an oath’.

It was a form of making good things as unlawful. The people used to swear. If anyone swears that he/she will not do any particular work, then he/she cannot do that. And if someone breaks the oath, then he/she would have to suffer, which is called ‘Expiation of the Oath’.

There is no seizure against any unintentional oath. But it is compulsory to fulfill the oath, which is sworn intentionally. If someone breaks this kind of oath, he/she would have to pay the expiation i.e. (a) either he/she would have to feed ten needy persons with the average of that wherewith one feeds one’s own folk, (either causing  them to sit down collectively or pay any poor equal to Sadqa-i-Fitr of ten members of the family), (b) or give the clothing to ten indigent people (which should be as sufficient that the needy may cover maximum part of one’s body {a set of shirt and trousers or a colored cloth worn as a dhoti (Lungi) and a sheet}, and or (c) set a slave/maid free.

The above mentioned expiation is for those people, who have so much wealth that the poor-due becomes incumbent on them to be paid after passing one year with the wealth. Such person is called ‘a possessor of a property/a holder of capital’ (Saahib-e-Nissab). But the person, who is not Saahib-e-Nissab, expiation of oath for him is that he/she should keep a three days’ fast. It is commanded that “This is the method of coming out and obtaining liberation from your oaths if you have sworn (intentionally). Without paying expiation of the oaths, you would have to remain bound of your oaths. So you should think deeply before swearing.

The scholars of the religion have told that it is bad to abstain from the thing, which is lawful clearly. 1.  To put oneself in difficulties, to give up good food and good clothing for becoming a worshipper of God Almighty and devotee, is called ‘Priest-hood’, which is not liked in Islam. 2.  Someone swears in anger that he would never do any such work which is lawful in accord with Divine precepts of the religion. It is also against Islam.

Its expiation should be paid properly; otherwise, its punctuality will be compulsory. Then Allaah Almighty commands: To facilitate you, Allaah Almighty expounds to you His all Revelations. So be thankful to Him because He has established a Path for your easiness.    

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English by Muhammad Sharif)  

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